German musician; born at Dessau; was the son of Karl Ludwig, an amateur violinist and pianist; also the grandson of Friedrich Wilhelm, and a pupil of his uncle, Wilhelm Karl. He studied under F. Schneider from 1843 to 1846. In 1845 he became private music-teacher in the family of a Hungarian nobleman; in 1849 settled in Berlin, becoming soon afterward a member of the Singakademie, and in 1850 of the Bach Society at Leipsic. He was much in demand as a teacher in Berlin, and played there in a number of concerts; became organist of St. Luke's Church in 1861, and a year later the director of the Bach Society in Berlin, a post he retained till 1874, during which time he caused to be performed a number of unfamiliar works by Bach and others among the great composers. In 1864 he was appointed Royal musical director, and in 1868 received the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the University at Marburg. In 1870 he became teacher of counterpoint and composition at the Stern Conservatory, and eight years later was called to teach in the Leipsic Conservatory, and to become organist of St. Thomas' Church. His compositions includeseveral pieces of piano-music, but are for the most part vocal; motets; choruses; songs and part songs for men's or mixed chorus. The work for which he was most distinguished was the editing of numerous works of Bach published by the Bach Society, which occupied nearly ten years, and shows great accuracy and extensive knowledge on his part. He died in Leipsic.