Brother of the famous Anton; was a pianist and composer of no small ability, although his gifts were overshadowed by those of the elder brother. He possessed a distinct individuality as a pianist that won for him equal recognition in his native country. Nicolaus Rubinstein was born at Moscow, and from 1844 to 1846 studied the piano, first under his mother and later under Kullak at Berlin, where he also worked at composition with Dehn. His mother had accompanied both her sons, who were termed the " Musical Gracchi," to Germany, but on the death of her husband returned, taking with her the younger boy, and thus his father's death deprived him of the continued advantages which the elder enjoyed. Nicolaus traveled through Germany and Russia as a pianist, and then became instrumental in organizing the Russian Musical Society at Moscow, conducting their symphony concerts, and from 1864, the date of the establishment of the Moscow Conservatory, was its director, which position he held until he died. He continued to play in public, giving annual concerts an St. Petersburg, and also organizing concerts in various Russian towns for the benefit of the wounded during the war. In 1878 he gave four concerts of Russian music at the Paris Exposition, dying in that city three years later.