Celebrated German musical theorist, critic and writer; born at Grossmehlra; received some early instruction from his father, an amateur musician and composer, who was opposed to his son following music as a profession. Studied theory under Frankenburger at Sondershausen, and piano under Ratzenberger and Barthel. After a three years' course in the Rossleben Gymnasium, he studied law, philosophy and history at Berlin and Tülingen, and joined the army for a year, entering the Leipsic Conservatory at the age of twenty-two. In 1873 he took the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Gottingen and taught at Bielefeld. In 1878 he prepared himself to become lecturer on music at Leipsic University, but did not assume the duties of this position till 1895, teaching at Bromberg, at the Hamburg Conservatory, and at the conservatories of Sondershausen and Wiesbaden. He has received honorary membership in the Cecilia Academy, Rome; the Society for the Promotion of Classical Music at Amsterdam, and the Royal Institute, Florence. His compositions include songs, pianomusic, books of piano studies, and several pieces of chamber-music. He is the author of a large number of historical, theoretical and critical works, a number of which have been translated into English. The most important of these are Musik Lexikon; Die Entwickelung unserer Notenschrift; Die Mapruplai; der byzantinischen liturgischen Notation; Geschichte der Musiktheorie im X-XIX Jahrhundert; Handbuch der Harmonielehre; Neue Schule der Melodik; Vergleichende Klavierschule; Musikalische Dynamik und Agogik; History of Musical Forms; Catechism of Musical Instruments; Catechism of Pianoforte Playing; Analysis of J. S. Bach's Well-tempered Clavichord; and Harmony Simplified. Riemann has also edited phrasing editions of classical piano works, including previously unpublished works of Friedemann Bach, the complete classical works of Rameau, etc.; also new edition of Kompositionslehre by Marx; translated Gevaert's Instrumentation, and Origines du chant liturgique into German; contributed articles to various periodicals, along critical and historical lines, etc.; and was musical editor of Meyer's Konversations lexikon.