German teacher of and writer on music; born at Mainstockheim, but was denied the advantage of lessons until the removal of her parents to LeijDsic in 1850, when she became a pupil of the wife of Franz Brendel, and of Brendel also, Frau Brendel having been a pupil of Field. After a penod of lessons for several years, she studied alone and in 1858 founded at Glückstadt a normal school of music for women, where they received training for the profession of teaching. In 1865, together with Ida Volk- mann, she established' a music school at Nuremburg, where she superintended a faculty of teachers selected for their excellence. From 1860 she was also musical correspondent of the Jahreszeiten, at Hamburg; and her contributions to this periodical were published in 1868 under the title, Aus der Gegenwart. The same year a didactic work, Die Musikals Gegenstand der Erziehung, was published at Leipsic, and the k next year, 1869, her Allgemeine Erzieh und Unterrichts Jugend. In 1880 appeared a work on Liszt's oratorio, Christus, and she later edited a collection of all his writings. Other publications are a twelve volume Grundiss der Technik des Klavierspiels, and Bach und Handel. Her chief literary work was a biography of Liszt, much of the information for which was obtained direct from the great pianist. She also composed several sonatinas, and other music for piano.