German pianist, organist and violinist; born at Dittmansdorf, Silesia; received his earlier musical education at the Gymnasium, Breslau, from Ernst Kohler in organ and piano, Lüstner in violin, and Brosig in composition. In 1848 he entered the Leipsic Conservatory, where he studied under Moscheles and Hauptmann. He became first violin in the Gewandhaus Orchestra in 1850, and second conductor of the Singing Society in 1852, David being chief conductor; the next year he was musical director of the City Theatre, Leipsic, for a short time, leaving this post to serve a year in the German army, after which he settled in Berlin, where he entered into a successful musical life, appearing in public as pianist, organist, and second violinist in a quartet, also giving concerts, both choral and orchestral, from 1858 to 1863. In the latter year he was appointed musical director of the Court Theatre, and Royal Court conductor in 1871. On the death of Stern, in 1883, he succeeded him as artistic director of the Stern Conservatory, a post he held till 1888. In 1887 he withdrew from the directorship of the Court Opera, and in 1892 became director of the Royal Institute for Church Music in Berlin, succeeding August Haupt, who had died the preceding year. He became a member of the Berlin Academy in 1874, and of the Senate in 1882. Of his works, the songs, including solos, duets, trios and quartets, are most numerous; Die Monkguter, a one-act vaudeville, was produced at Berlin, 1874; two piano trios and a number of orchestral works, comprising two overtures, two scherzos, a Nachtstück, a symphony, a capriccio, etc., complete the list.