German violinist; born at Berlin. He began to study the violin with his father when only a little boy, and, having taken piano lessons from Handwerg and toured Germany, Russia, Sweden, Denmark and Holland with his father and brothers, he took lessons in Berlin from Helmich and Wirth and finished under Joachim at the Hochschule, meantime playing in Brenner's and Laube's Orchestras and as solo violinist from 1883 to 1885. He was then in the Hlawacz Orchestra in Pawlowsk, Russia. He was engaged in 1891 for the Opera and the Gewandhaus Orchestras at Leipsic. He is now Court concertmaster, and professor in a Conservatory in Vienna.