German organist and composer; born at Elgersburg, Thuringia. Studied at the Conservatories of Cologne and Leipsic, and after 1875 was professor in the latter Conservatory. In 1880 he took Rust's place as organist of St. Thomas' Church. His organ works comprise six fantasias; eight preludes, and five choral preludes; ten choral improvisations; three interludes; five character-pieces; wedding sonata; and a Pentecost Celebration. He has also composed some pianomsuic and songs. He is the author of Regeln und Erlauterungen zum Studium der Musiktheorie.