German pianist, musical writer and critic. Studied at the Stern Conservatory, Berlin, for four years and afterward, in 1868, became a teacher at Kullak's Academy, where he remained nine years. In 1883 he became choirmaster for a Berlin Synagogue. The Deutscher Musiklehrer Verband was founded by him as a music-teachers' union in 1879 and he also founded and was director of a college for the training of piano teachers. He wrote a number of works on musical subjects, was editor of the Klavierlehrer, a musical periodical, and also wrote several choral pieces, some pianopieces and songs.