German violinist and director. In his youth he suffered an accident to his left hand that made it difficult for him to continue the career of violinist on which he was started, but with an adapted violin he learned to finger with the right hand and bow with the left, and in spite of disadvantages he became a violin virtuoso. He was born at Grosswanzleben in Saxony, studied at Magdeburg, and for four years was under Joachim. He held the post of University Music Director at Marburg, and later became conductor of the Philharmonic concerts at Hamburg and the Singakademie in that city. He is the author of songs and several quartets for strings.