Contemporary conductor and lecturer, and ardent disciple and exponent of Wagner. He was born at Andernach-on-Rhine, and studied music under Flügel at Neuwied and under Hompesch at Cologne. He settled in London, in 1863. From 1886 to 1894 he was conductor of the stageband and the chorus at the Bayreuth Wagner Festival. In 1881, was conductor of the Court Theatre, London; the Haymarket in 1889; and the Lyceum in 1895. Conducted many performances of opera, at Drury Lane and Covent Garden, from 1892 to 1893. As a lecturer, he has been very active and is widely known. He appeared before Queen Victoria in 1899; in America he gave the Lowell lectures at Boston, on the life and works of Wagner, and lectures at various of the larger universities of the United States. He holds the post of musical adviser to the London County Council.